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Dinghy Sailing with the Canadian Yachting Association

White Sail Level I - Section 1 covers safety with a look at lifejackets, actions to be followed immediately after a capsize and how to right a capsized boat. And the required items for a sailboat less than 5.5 meters long as outlined in the current Boating Safety Guide. Section 2 is Seamanship, Candidates must be able to tie 4 knots within a certain time and describe their uses. And describe four ways to identify from what direction the wind is blowing. Section three deals with preparation to sail including coiling a line correctly, making a line fast to a cleat and getting in and out of a boat safely at a dock or mooring.

Section 4 looks at rigging, attaching sails, rigging sheets and halyards, fitting sail battens and the rudder and tiller, adjusting the centerboard and hoisting sails. Section 5 covers boat handling, firstly identifying the direction of the wind then while underway to keeping the sail just on the point of luffing while on a reach, keeping a boat going in a straight line on a reach for at least two minutes and righting a capsized boat and clearing it of water. The final section deals with securing and derigging, securing by the bow only, by the bow and stern and at a single mooring, in each case using the appropriate size line and knot, and leaving an appropriate length of line. Derigging the boat by lowering and removing the sails, removing and stowing the rudder and tiller, and properly securing the boom and centerboard. Folding and bagging a loose sail.

And finally securing all gear in the boat upon completion of sailing. On the completion of White Sail I, the sailor will be able to perform the afore mentioned tasks in wind speeds of 4-9 knots where applicable. White Sail Level II - Commences with a section on terminology, identifying the various parts of a sailboat pointing out and describing the functions various items in a sailboat, defining certain terms and describe the different points of sail. The second section covers seamanship, candidates must me able to tie a rolling hitch and sheetbend each within 10 seconds and describe two uses of each of these knots. And describe the wave conditions resulting from various speeds of wind. The next section is boat handling, candidates will act as both helmsman and crew while getting underway from, and returning to, a dock, mooring or beach. Act as helmsman and crew, using the proper commands and responses, while beating, reaching, running, tacking, gybing, bearing away and heading up. As a helmsman, stop a boat at a predetermined point by luffing up and as both skipper and crew, right a capsized boat. On the completion of White Sail II, the sailor will be able to perform the aforementioned mentioned tasks in wind speeds of 4-9 knots. White Sail Level III - A section on safety launches this section with a look at hypothermia and it's causes, three ways to minimize the dangers and rules on how to treat a mild case of hypothermia after the victim is out of the water.

Identification and the meaning of the colours and shapes in the lateral buoyage system. Listing local geographic and navigational hazards and describe the actions required to minimize their effects. Listing three sources of local weather information together with localized weather hazards, how they can be identified, the normal warning signs and the actions to be taken to reduce their effects. Section 2 covers further terminology, various items in a sailboat, the different parts of a sail and the distinguishing features different types of sailboats. Seamanship is section 3 with a look at how to sail away from and back to a beach with an on-shore wind, a dock for various wind directions and a mooring. Section 4 is on the rules of the road for prevention of collision at sea and considers the case of stand on and give way vessels in different situations and looks at some common sense actions you should take when sailing in the vicinity of commercial shipping. There is a look at racing with the sound signals and flags used to start a race and the rules in use while the race is underway. Section 5 is boat handling, students will act as both skipper and crew while sailing a boat away from and back to a dock for various wind directions, away from and back to a mooring and on a windward/leeward course. They will demonstrate how different body crew positions affect the trim and performance of a sailboat and indicate the best positions for three given points of sail. They will get a boat out of irons by backing the jib and main using proper rudder adjustments.

Paddle a sailboat a distance of 30 meters (100 feet) without the use of a rudder in a reasonably straight line. They will demonstrate the following towing procedures, proper means to receive, secure and cast off a towline, the correct towing points on a sailboat, the proper securing inboard of a towline to a boat astern and the correct boat trim, steering procedures and crew alertness while on and releasing from the tow. They will demonstrate the actions to be taken if a person falls overboard, with the boat under sail form the time the person falls overboard without warning until the person is rescued. They will helm the boat by the lee for 90 meters without gybing and finally right a capsized boat. On completion of White Sail Level III the beginner will be able to sail confidently and competently in wind speeds of 4-9 knots and perform the aforementioned skills proficiently. Bronze Sail Level IV - The first section deals with safety and the factors in your local area such as currents, tides and weather which should be considered before going sailing. The three types of flotation commonly found in dinghies and the factors which affect the self-rescuing capabilities of a dinghy And finally a look at chart of unfamiliar waters and identification of hazards and means of recognizing them. Seamanship is the next section and students will demonstrate their ability to whip the end of a line with a plain whipping of appropriate length, make a back splice and an eye splice and heave a 10 metre line to land across a 1 metre diameter target at least 7 metres away, in three tries out of four. The next section is further nautical terminology. Following that is some sailing theory including leeway and its importance on different points of sail.

The centre of lateral resistance (CLR) and centre of effort (CE) affect lee and weather helm in theory and practice, weight distribution and centreboard adjustments affect on the CLR, the boat's underwater shape affects its helm, sail trim, mast rake and position affect the CE and helm, draft (fullness in a sail) is and how it affects the power and the pointing ability of a sail, the use and position of telltales on shrouds and ticklers on a sail. The next section considers sail shape and how the main sail is affected by halyard tension, mainsheet tension, cunningham tension, traveller position, outhaul tension, mast bend, boom vang tension and mast rake. And how the shape of the jib sails affected by halyard tension, sheet tension and fairlead position. The use of outhaul, cunningham, mainsheet, and traveller, while sailing on a beat, a reach, and a run under the following conditions. On the water students will be asked to skipper and crew the boat on various points of sail and tacking and gybing. Carry out a self-rescue after capsizing in a dinghy and carry on sailing with a minimum time delay. Carry out the following tasks without a rudder, sail a course upwind toward a predetermined destination, make at least one controlled tack and settle down to a course to the predetermined destination, bear away or tack and return to the starting position. With sails backed, sail the boat astern to a predetermined destination 90 metres downwind. On completion of this level IV the candidate will be able to understand and apply the basic principles of sail trim and boat tuning for optimal performance in wind speeds of 9-14 knots.


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